Novel roles of RTN4 and CLIMP-63 in regulating mitochondrial structure, bioenergetics and apoptosis.

Carter RJ., Milani M., Beckett AJ.,Liu S., Prior IA., Cohen GM. & Varadarajan S.

Cell Death and Disease, doi: 10.1038/s41419-022-04869-8.


THESISExploring the Therapeutic Potential and Molecular Mechanisms of Targeting mTOR Kinases in Cancer.

Alotibi A., April 2022.




HPV16 E1 dysregulated cellular genes involved in cell proliferation and host DNA damage: A possible role in cervical carcinogenesis.

Baedyananda F., Chaiwongkot A., Varadarajan S. &Bhattarakosol P.

PLOS ONE 16(12), e0260841 doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0260841

STINGing viral tumours: What we know from head and neck cancers.

Saulters E., Woolley JF., Varadarajan S., Jones TM. & Dahal LN.

Cancer Research, doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-21-0785.



THESISDihydroorotate dehydrogenase regulates ER membrane reorganisation and cell death in cancer.

Yedida G., March 2020.


Exploring the potential of BH3 mimetic therapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

Carter RJ., Milani M., Butterworth M., Alotibi A., Harper N., Yedida G., Greaves G., Al-Zebeeby A., Jorgensen AL., Schache AG., Risk JM., Shaw RJ., Jones TM., Sacco JJ., Hurlstone A., Cohen GM. & Varadarajan S. 

Cell Death and Disease10(12):912. doi: 10.1038/s41419-019-2150-8.


Apogossypol-mediated reorganisation of the endoplasmic reticulum antagonises mitochondrial fission and apoptosis.

Yedida G., Milani M., Cohen GM. & Varadarajan S.  

Cell Death and Disease, 10, 521, doi.org/10.1038/s41419-019-1759-y


DRP-1 functions independently of mitochondrial structural perturbations to facilitate BH3 mimetic-mediated apoptosis.

Milani M.Beckett AJ., Al-Zebeeby, A.Luo, X., Prior IA.Cohen GM. & Varadarajan S.  

Cell Death Discovery, 5, 117, doi.org/10.1038/s41420-019-0199-x

THESIS:The complex regulatory mechanisms of the BCL-2 family of proteins in cancer.

Greaves G., April 2019.

THESIS: Exploring the therapeutic potential and cellular mechanisms of BH3 mimetic-mediated apoptosis in cancer.

Milani M., June 2019.

THESISTargeting the glutamine metabolic pathway enhances sensitivity to BH3 mimetics in different malignancies.

Al-Zebeeby AE., Nov 2019.



Targeting intermediary metabolism enhances the efficacy of BH3 mimetic therapy in haematological malignancies.

Al-Zebeeby A., Vogler M., Milani M., Richards C., Alotibi A., Greaves G., Dyer MJS., Cohen GM. & Varadarajan S.  

Haematologica, doi:10.3324/haematol.2018.204701

BH3-only proteins are dispensable for apoptosis induced by pharmacological inhibition of both MCL-1 and BCL-XL.

Greaves G.Milani M.Butterworth M.Carter RJ.Byrne DP.Eyers PA.Luo X.Cohen GM. & Varadarajan S.  

Cell Death and Differentiationdoi: 10.1038/s41418-018-0183-7

Selective BH3-mimetics targeting BCL-2, BCL-XL or MCL-1 induce severe mitochondrial perturbations. 

Henz, K.Al-Zebeeby, A.Basoglu, M., Fulda, S., Cohen, G. M., Varadarajan, S. Vogler, M.  

Biological Chemistry, doi: 10.1515/hsz-2018-0233

THESIS:  The Role of HPV16 E1 in Cervical Carcinogenesis.

Baedyananda, F., July 2018.


DRP-1 is required for BH3 mimetic-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis. 

Milani, M., Byrne, D. P., Greaves, G., Butterworth, M., Cohen, G. M., Eyers, P. A. & Varadarajan, S. Cell Death and Disease, 8, e2552. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2016.485


BH3 profiling and a toolkit of BH3-mimetic drugs predict anti-apoptotic dependence of cancer cells. 

Butterworth, M., Pettitt, A., Varadarajan, S. & Cohen, G. M.

British Journal of Cancer, 114(6), 638-641. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2016.49

High CIP2A levels correlate with an antiapoptotic phenotype that can be overcome by targeting BCL-XL in chronic myeloid leukemia.

Lucas, C. M., Milani, M., Butterworth, M., Carmell, N., Scott, L. J., Clark, R. E.,Cohen, G. M. & Varadarajan, S. 

Leukemia, 30(6), 1273-1281. doi: 10.1038/leu.2016.42


Maritoclax and dinaciclib inhibit MCL-1 activity and induce apoptosis in both a MCL-1-dependent and -independent manner. 

Varadarajan, S., Poornima, P., Milani, M., Gowda, K., Amin, S., Wang, H.-G. & Cohen, G. M.

Oncotarget, 6(14), 12668-12681. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.3706

The transrepression arm of glucocorticoid receptor signaling is protective in mutant huntingtin-mediated neurodegeneration. 

Varadarajan, S., Breda, C., Smalley, J. L., Butterworth, M., Farrow, S. N., Giorgini, F. & Cohen, G. M. 

Cell Death and Differentiation, 22(8), 1388-1396. doi: 10.1038/cdd.2015.1


Evaluation and critical assessment of putative MCL-1 inhibitors.

Varadarajan S, Vogler M, Butterworth M, Dinsdale D, Walensky L & Cohen G.M.

Cell Death and Differentiation, 20, 1475-1484. doi: 10.1038/cdd.2013.79

Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Reorganization Is Regulated by Ionic Homeostasis. 

Varadarajan, S., Tanaka, K., Smalley, J. L., Bampton, E. T. W., Pellecchia, M., Dinsdale, D., Willars, G.B. & Cohen, G. M.

PLOS One, 8(2). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056603

Sabutoclax and BI112D1, Putative Inhibitors of MCL-1, Induce Mitochondrial Fragmentation Either Upstream of or Independent of Apoptosis. 

Varadarajan, S., Butterworth, M., Wei, J., Pellecchia, M., Dinsdale, D. & Cohen, G. M. 

Neoplasia, 15(5), 568-578. doi:10.1593/neo.13230

The small molecule dispergo tubulates the endoplasmic reticulum and inhibits export. 

Lu, L., Hannoush, R. N., Goess, B. C., Varadarajan, S., Shair, M. D., & Kirchhausen, T.

Molecular Biology of the Cell, 24(7), 1020-1029. doi:10.1091/mbc.E12-08-0575


A novel cellular stress response characterised by a rapid reorganisation of membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. 

Varadarajan, S., Bampton, E. T. W., Smalley, J. L., Tanaka, K., Caves, R. E., Butterworth, M., Wei, J., Pellecchia, M., Mitcheson, J., Gant, T.W., Dinsdale, D. & Cohen, G. M.

Cell Death and Differentiation, 19(12), 1896-1907. doi:10.1038/cdd.2012.108


TRAIL-activated stress kinases suppress apoptosis through transcriptional upregulation of MCL-1.

Son, J. K., Varadarajan, S., & Bratton, S. B.

Cell Death and Differentiation, 17(8), 1288-1301. doi:10.1038/cdd.2010.9


Drosophila Omi, a mitochondrial-localized IAP antagonist and proapoptotic serine protease. 

Challa, M., Malladi, S., Pellock, B. J., Dresnek, D., Varadarajan, S., Yin, Y. W., White, K. & Bratton, S. B. 

The EMBO Journal, 26(13), 3144-3156. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj.7601745